Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

Genetically Modified Mosquitoes, Alternatives, Prevention and Defense.

Here is a list of ways Floridians can defend against the GM mosquito invasion and potential initial increase in Zika, chikungunya, dengue fever, etc.(60)

  1. Native Florida Plants and Animals.
    Unfortunately we live in Florida where we are invaded by GM mosquitoes(Aedes aegypti).  Fortunately we live in Florida where our #1 defense against GM Aedes aegypti, is native plants and animals.  American Beautyberry(Callicarpa americana) is a plant native to many parts of Florida that is also a mosquito repellent, thanks to one of it’s active ingredients callicarpenal and intermedeol found in the leaves.(1)  American beautyberries are fairly inexpensive, keep well in pots and can be placed in windows, on porches, in your homes, etc. and they can also repel deer ticks (66) and fire ants. (67)  A study suggests using repellant plants as a screening around homes significantly reduced the amount of Aedes aegypti in homes.(70)  Another native plant, False Daisy(Eclipta alba) can be used as both a repellent and adulticide against Aedes Aegypti (59) and because they usually only grow about a foot tall are good for window sills.  Southern Bayberry(Myrica cerifera) contains 1,8-cineole (3) which is also a repellent of Aedes Aegypti (4) and may be toxic to Aedes Aegypti as well. (65)  Southern Bayberry(Myrica cerifera) can also attract the mosquito-eating Tree Swallow. (5)  Nest boxes can also attract Tree Swallows.

    The second variety of native plants used for GM mosquito defense are the native plants that trap mosquitoes, such as Pink Sundew(Drosera capilaris), Blue butterwort(Pinguicula caerulea) and Small butterwort(Pinguicula pumila). (6, 7)  These native plants work together, using a push/pull strategy.(8)  The way it works in agriculture is to place the repellent plants in with the crop, and use the trapping plant as a border plant.  The insects move away from the repellent plant, heading right for the trapping plant and become trapped.(9)  For our purposes American Beautyberry, Southern Bayberry and False Daisy(repellents) can be placed close to your home or in your home, and the trapping plants, Pink Sundew(Drosera capilaris), Blue butterwort(Pinguicula caerulea) and Small butterwort(Pinguicula pumila) further away, perhaps outside your home or along the fence of your yard, etc.  Yet another native plant we can use for GM mosquito defense are Bladderworts such as Humped Bladderwort(Utricularia gibba), Cone-spur bladderwort(Utricularia gibba), Eastern purple bladderwort(Utricularia purpurea) and Leafy bladderwort(Utricularia foliosa), which trap mosquito larvae.(10) Push/pull is a natural method of controlling pests that can be used to control mosquitoes and reduce or even eliminate insecticides.(74)  Yet the method worked so well at controlling agricultural pests in Kenya, that according to one article, a former UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser trying to get the government to use GMO’s, claimed it as an example of GMO success, even though no GM crops were used.(68)  In areas where native trapping plants aren’t available mosquito traps such as the can be used.(75)

    *Note: Different varieties of Sundews, Butterworts and Bladderworts are native to different parts of Florida.  Check the Florida Native Plant Society website for your local variety.(11)  Check with your local native nursery to purchase American Beautyberries, Southern Bayberry, Sundews, Butterworts, and Bladderworts.(12)

    Native Florida Animals can also be a GM mosquito defense.
    Green anoles are native to Florida, they are believed to eat thousands of mosquitoes daily.(13)  Green Anoles were once abundant in Florida, but in recent years Green Anoles are a rare sight in Florida due to large numbers being taken from the wild to be sold in the pet trade.  Another reason for the reduced numbers of Green Anoles is the introduction of the invasive Brown Anole, Curlytail Lizard, and Knight Anole(ironically pets released into the wild) who prey on the Green Anoles.  Invasive plants also reduce the Green Anole population by destroying Green Anole habitat.  Releasing Green Anoles from the pet trade back into the wild in Florida, and reintroducing native Florida plants for Green Anoles to inhabit, could potentially contribute to a reduction in mosquito populations.

    There are more than a dozen bats residing in Florida that are insectivorous and some are classified as Endangered by both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.  Building backyard and community bat houses provides a habitat for Endangered bats while potentially reducing the mosquito population.  For more information on bat houses, see the Florida Bat Conservancy website. (14)  If there is a pond filled with unwanted invasive fish on your property, consider adding the native Florida Mosquitofish(Gambusia holbrooki) who eat mosquito larvae and can out compete many invasive fish.  Mosquitofish(Gambusia holbrooki) has even been used to keep abandoned pools from becoming mosquito breeding grounds.(15)

    Tadpoles of native Florida frogs like the Green Treefrog(Hyla cinerea) also prey on mosquito larvae.  Other native Florida tadpoles may compete with mosquito larvae potentially reducing their ability to make it to adults.(76)  For more information on helping frogs, visit the Save the Frogs website.(17)
    A copepod Macrocyclops albidus found in Florida may reduce larval survival of Aedes Aegypti in containers by 99–100%(55).  These can be added to containers as well as to the Biteback trap(see #2).

    Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus a mosquito that is indigenous to Florida but is not capable of taking a blood meal from humans(unlike female GM mosquitoes which can take blood and spread disease(60) may also reduce Aedes Aegypti populations.(56,57)

    *Note: Although native plants and animals may reduce human attacks by GM Aedes aegypti, we have no idea what impact consuming GM mosquitoes may have on these and other organisms. 

  2. Natural Mosquito Repellents, Deterrents, Traps and Attractants(to avoid and use as bait). 

    Studies suggest Aedes have a clothes color preference, “black (most attractive); red (very attractive); blue (attractive to neutral), green, yellow, and white (less attractive).” (16)  Avoid wearing the colors of clothes that they are most attracted to.

    Alcohol consumption may also lead to increased mosquito attacks.(16)  Take extra precautions when drinking alcoholic beverages.

    Those with glucose intolerance are more likely to get dengue fever.(18)  Get your blood glucose level tested to see if you have a higher risk of getting dengue fever.

    Aedes aegypti are attracted to horse manure.(19)  Anyone living near horses should take extra precautions as well.

    It is believed Aedes aegypti is more likely to bite feet, ankles and elbows.(20)  Keeping your legs, feet and arms covered, using clothes that are colors that Aedes aegypti are not attracted to, and/or using essential oil mosquito repellents may help reduce mosquito bites.

    Avoid DEET, studies suggest that some Aedes aegypti have developed resistance to DEET.(21)

    Avoid devices that use sound to repel mosquitoes because they may increase the chance of being fed on. (62)

    Studies suggest Citronella, Patchouli, Makaen, Clove, Catnip, Thyme, Turmeric, Hairy Basil, Kaffir lime, Cassia and Lemongrass essential oils repel mosquitoes, mixed with vanilla essential oil those repellent effects may increase.(22,23,24,25,26)  Studies suggest Eucalyptus essential oil vapors may be toxic to Aedes aegypti.(27)  It is recommended that you rotate between using different essential oils every couple of weeks so the mosquitoes do not build resistance to them.  Many of these essential oils can be used in a diffuser as a mosquito repellent or could be used to make a mosquito repellent applied to the skin. (28)

    Aedes aegypti may be more likely than other mosquitoes to breed in your home, in toilets, sink and shower drains, etc.  Prevention and using a natural mosquito larvicide can reduce the chances of breeding.  Studies suggest shutting your toilet lid before flushing is a good idea for sanitary reasons.(29)  However, closing your toilet lid may also be a preventative measure against mosquitoes breeding in your toilet.  An even more effective preventative measure is the use of natural mosquito larvicides made from plant essential oils poured into your toilet bowls, toilet tanks, sink and shower drains.  This is especially important if you will not be home for a couple of weeks or rarely use a toilet, shower or sink in your home.  Studies suggest Neem, Karanja, Amyris, Sandalwood, Eucalyptus and Rosemary, Cinnamon, Caraway, Celery, Fennel, Mullilam, Zedoary, essential oils are effective mosquito larvicides.(30,31,32,33,34,35,36)  These essential oil larvicides can be poured into toilet tanks, down sink and shower drains, etc. to reduce survival of mosquito larvae.

    Besides using larvicides, studies suggest adding Vinegar, Lime juice, Salt, Fenugreek seeds, Hibiscus (Shoe flower) leaves, Curry leaves or Radish to water may deter Aedes aegypti from placing its eggs there. (37)  Vinegar and Lime juice could be used in toilets or drains, can be used for cleaning in general and used in dish soap so Aedes aegypti will be less likely to lay eggs in a mop bucket that may be left with water in them, or in water filled cups and dishes in your sink. Coffee grinds also act as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti.(58)  Coffee grinds are also used as a fertilizer and so could be added to dishes under flower pots or to vases.(58)  Salt could also be used in vases or other small containers. Soaps and laundry detergents that use many of these mosquito repellent and larvicidal essential oils can be purchased.  Using these soaps every time you shower puts a repellent on the skin, and using these detergents or adding essential oils like Eucalyptus to your detergents puts repellents on your clothes. A larvicide essential oil in your soap also reduces any mosquito larvae as it goes down the sink and shower drains. It is also a good idea to rotate using soaps and detergents with different essential oils to avoid resistance.

    *Note : Although Amyris and Sandalwood may be good mosquito larvicides, their use should be avoided because over over-exploitation(2)

    Some plants, etc. are mosquito attractants.  Although you would normally want to avoid mosquito attractants, they are used to attract mosquitoes to larvae traps.  The push/pull method will be used again, with the repellents and deterrents used in and around your home.  Then the attractants are used outdoors in larvae traps placed further away from your home.  One study suggests Potato peels, Red chilly powder and Cumin seeds attract Aedes aegypti.(37)  An effective mosquito larvae trap may be a Biteback trap which claims to be 99% effective(38), but you can add a larvicide or some Macrocyclops albidus to the water to be safe.  Attractants can be purchased or you can make your own.  Even if no attractant is used, studies suggest that once Aedes aegypti deposit their eggs in a container, the eggs act as an attractant for other Aedes aegypti to deposit their eggs there as well.(42)

    * Note: This list is specifically for Aedes aegypti, other essential oils such as Lemon Eucalyptus and Geranium are effective mosquito repellents against other mosquitoes. (39,40)  Studies suggest several other plant essential oils and/or extracts are effective mosquito repellents and/or larvicides.  This list is limited to those most commonly available for sale in the U.S.

  3. Get a Net! An untreated net!  Untreated mosquito nets are an effective measure against mosquito bites.

    According to one study there was, “personal protection from 40% of bites for an untreated net user” (41)  Although Aedes aegypti is primarily an early morning/daytime feeder, they have been seen feeding at night under artificial lighting and may rest and even breed in your home.  A bed net can provide protection for 1/3 of your day(or more).  A study in Haiti using insecticide treated bed nets suggests they were effective(73), although insecticide treated nets were used, the results suggest bed nets can be used against Aedes Aegypti.  For the rest of the day there are mosquito nets for strollers, cribs, gazebos, and even head nets.  You can buy several varieties of mosquito nets, just make sure you get an UNTREATED net, or you will be breathing in insecticide.  For extra protection, natural mosquito repellents like the essential oils mentioned in #2 could be used to treat your mosquito nets.

    Another net or screen that attaches to a box fan or other portable fan, may make an effective indoor mosquito trap.  This netting for a box fan trap can be purchased at the Skeeterbag website.(43)  It can also be made for a plastic box fan.(44)  Or made for a metal box fan.(45)

  4. Save the Native Florida Forests and Destroy the Invasive Plants and Trees

    Destruction of native Florida forests increases mosquitoes attacks!  Many studies suggest deforestation increases mosquito attacks and can increase the spread of mosquito related diseases.(46,47,48)  Some biotech companies are destroying native forests in Florida(49), which may increase mosquitoes.  This can make other biotech companies more money from releasing GM mosquitoes!  To help stop the destruction of native Florida forests to build biotech labs, visit the ScrapScripps website.(49)   Invasive plants can create a mosquito problem.(50)  One example in Florida is the invasive plant Hydrilla(Hydrilla verticillata).(51)  Other examples are invasive plants that attract Aedes aegypti such as Guinea grass(Panicum maximum)and Goosegrass(Eleusine indica). (52,53)  Guinea grass and Goosegrass can be pulled up and used in Larvae traps, helping reduce mosquito populations in two ways.  Another invasive plant Lantana camara can be pulled up and its flowers used to make a repellent(69) and its leaves used to make an essential oil that can be used as a adulticide and larvicide against Aedes aegypti(63,64), helping reduce both of these invasive species at the same time.  By removing invasive plants and trees you reduce the risk of creating a new environment where mosquitoes may thrive, and reduce damage to native Florida forests.  If you don’t know what is invasive to your area, a good place to start is the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council website.(61)*Note: Although invasive plants are more likely to increase mosquito attacks, there are at least two native Florida plants, senescent bamboo (Arundinaria gigantea) and white oak (Quercus alba) can attract Aedes aegypti to direct their eggs to. (54) Puddles around these trees are more likely to be used by Aedes aegypti to direct their eggs and should be filled in, or larvicides should be used.  However, infusions of leaves of these trees could be used as an attractant for mosquito larvae traps.

  5. Remove Mosquito Breeding Areas!  Any standing water around your home has the potential to be a mosquito breeding ground.

    Make sure your gutters are clean to keep any standing water from collecting.

    Drill holes in any containers like garbage cans to allow the water to drain.

    Regularly change water in bird baths or children’s pools.

    Make sure there are no puddles forming under your air conditioners.

    Remove old tires or any other items that may collect water.

    Turn kayaks and canoes upside down.

    If it is supposed to rain, shut off sprinklers to reduce puddles.

    Check your property after it rains for any puddles, and fill in puddles with soil and plant native plants there to keep the soil in place.

  6. Use a fan! 
  7. Directions: Fill a cup about halfway with water.  Add a good amount of dish soap.  Make several traps and put them around your house especially in bathrooms and kitchen.  Only use indoors or an enclosed porch to avoid catching dragonflies or other beneficial insects.  Tell your friends and neighbors how to make traps or make traps for them.

    We encourage you to take at least some easy and relatively cheap precautions such as getting American beautyberry plants, making soap traps, etc. and convince your neighbors to do so as well.  The potential for a GM mosquito to feed on you exists and the risk of Zika, chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever and West Nile Virus may potentially increase(60), using at least some of these measures could drastically reduce your risk.


  1. Cantrell CL, Klun JA, Bryson CT, Kobaisy M, Duke SO. (2005) Isolation and identification of mosquito bite deterrent terpenoids from leaves of American (Callicarpa americana) and Japanese (Callicarpa japonica) beautyberry. J Agric Food Chem 27;53(15):5948-53.”showed significant repellent activity against A. aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.”
  2. Unethical Use of Rare and Threatened Plant and Animal Products in the Aroma Industry. Endangered Species Update May/June 2003 Vol 20(3), 97-106
  3. William N. Setzer, Jennifer M. Schmidt, Joseph A. Noletto, and Bernhard Vogler (2006) LEAF OIL COMPOSITIONS AND BIOACTIVITIESOF ABACO BUSH MEDICINES. Pharmacologyonline 3:794-802″The most abundant essential oil components of Myrica cerifera were 1,8-cineole(30.7%) and α-terpineol (14.2%).”
  4. James A. Klocke, Mark V. Darlington and Manuel F. Balandrin (1986) 1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae). Journal of Chemical Ecology Volume 13, Number 12, 2131-2141,”Although 1,8-cineole did not exhibit any significant mosquito larvicidal activity, it was moderately effective as a feeding repellent and highly effective as an ovipositional repellent against adultAedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito).”
  6. David E. Jennings, James J. Krupa, Thomas R. Raffel, and Jason R. Rohr (2010) Evidence for competition between carnivorous plants and spiders. Proc Biol Sci. 7; 277(1696): 3001–3008.”Orders Diptera and Collembola, and family Formicidae, were the most frequently captured taxa by both sundews (33.3, 29.6 and 23.5%, respectively)”
  7. Makoto Honda. Carnivorous Plants / Insectivorous Plants in the Wilderness”Most of the prey is small insects such as ants and mosquitoes.”
  8. Mario A. Navarro-Silva; Francisco A. Marques; Jonny E. Duque LI, (2009) Review of semiochemicals that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae. Rev. Bras. entomol. vol.53 no.1 São Paulo 2009 “Integrated systems for pest management, which include strategies of attraction towards predefined places for the capture of mosquitoes (“Push Pull strategy”) might be the best way of sustainable control of mosquitoes in the future. Under this perspective, compounds with repellent effect would act pushing away vectors from places close to their hosts and attractant compounds would guide them to specific traps for their capture. Such control strategies would require little insecticide or they could even become unnecessary”
  9. African Insect Science for Food and Health
  10. Makoto Honda. Carnivorous Plants / Insectivorous Plants in the Wilderness”The typical prey for these miniature traps includes insect larvae (esp. those of mosquitoes)”
  12. Florida Association of Native Nurseries
  13. Our little friends Anoles, Florida’s ancient reptiles, need protection. Orlando Sentinel. September 9, 2007″eat thousands of spiders, ants, mosquitoes and roaches every day”
  14. Florida Bat Conservancy
  15. “Pools become nasty mosquito havens in foreclosure.” Tucson Citizen. Apr. 22, 2009
  16. University of Wisconsin in Madison. Integrated Mosquito Management. Home Remedies.
  18. Hasanat MA, Ananna MA, Ahmed MU, Alam MN (2010) Testing blood glucose may be useful in the management of dengue. Mymensingh Med J 19(3):382-5.”Among 133 studied dengue patients, 100 were found to have glucose intolerance”
  19. McPhatter, Lee P. Olsen, Cara H. Debboun, Mustapha (2009) Comparison of the attractiveness of organic infusions to the standard CDC gravid mosquito trap. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal. July-Sept, 2009 “Aedes aegypti (L) females were attracted to horse manure infusions”
  20. Dengue and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Dengue Branch, San Juan, PR”This mosquito can bite people without being noticed because it approaches from behind and bites on the ankles and elbows.””They lay eggs during the day in water containing organic material (e.g., decaying leaves, algae, etc.) in containers with wide openings and prefer dark-colored containers located in the shade.”
  21. Nina M. Stanczyka,b, John F. Y. Brookfieldb, Rickard Ignellc, James G. Logana, and Linda M. Field (2010) Behavioral insensitivity to DEET in Aedes aegypti is a genetically determined trait residing in changes in sensillum function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2010 “This study suggests that behavioral insensitivity to DEET in A. aegypti is a genetically determined dominant trait and resides in changes in sensillum function.”
    1. Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyam Y, Komalamisra N, Apiwathnasorn C. (2005) Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. Phytother Res. 19(4):303-9.”screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects””undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency.””Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h)”
    2. Zhu J, Zeng X, Yanma, Liu T, Qian K, Han Y, Xue S, Tucker B, Schultz G, Coats J, Rowley W, Zhang A. (2006) Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 22(3):515-22.”Catnip oil seemed to be the most effective and provided 6-h protection at both concentrations tested (23 and 468 microg/ cm2). Thyme oil had the highest effectiveness in repelling this species, but the repellency duration was only 2 h.”
    3. Tawatsin A, Wratten SD, Scott RR, Thavara U, Techadamrongsin Y. (2001) Repellency of volatile oils from plants against three mosquito vectors. J Vector Ecol. 26(1):76-82.”repellency effects against three mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oils from turmeric, citronella grass and hairy basil, especially with the addition of 5% vanillin, repelled the three species under cage conditions for up to eight hours. The oil from kaffir lime alone, as well as with 5% vanillin added, was effective for up to three hours.”
    4. Chang KS, Tak JH, Kim SI, Lee WJ, Ahn YJ. (2006) Repellency of Cinnamomum cassia bark compounds and cream containing cassia oil to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory and indoor conditions. Pest Manag Sci. 62(11):1032-8.”5% cassia oil cream provided 94, 83 and 61% protection against A. aegypti females exposed for 30, 50 and 70 min after application respectively.”
    5. Oyedele AO, Gbolade AA, Sosan MB, Adewoyin FB, Soyelu OL, Orafidiya OO. (2002) Formulation of an effective mosquito-repellent topical product from lemongrass oil. Phytomedicine. 9(3):259-62.”Ointment and cream formulations of lemongrass oil in different classes of base and the oil in liquid paraffin solution have been evaluated for mosquito repellency in a topical application.””The 1%v/v solution and 15%v/w cream and ointment preparations of the oil exhibited > or =50% repellency lasting 2-3 h”
    6. Lucia A, Licastro S, Zerba E, Gonzalez Audino P, Masuh H. (2009) Sensitivity of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) to the vapors of Eucalyptus essential oils. Bioresour Technol 100(23):6083-7.”Vapors of essential oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (E. gunnii, E. tereticornis, E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, E. dunnii, E. cinerea, E. saligna, E. sideroxylon, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. globulus ssp. maidenii, E. viminalis and the hybrids E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis) and their major components were found to be toxic to Aedes aegypti adults”
    7. Natural Ways to Prevent Bug Bites
    8. Barker J, Jones MV. (2005) The potential spread of infection caused by aerosol contamination of surfaces after flushing a domestic toilet. J Appl Microbiol. 99(2):339-47.”Many individuals may be unaware of the risk of air-borne dissemination of microbes when flushing the toilet and the consequent surface contamination that may spread infection within the household, via direct surface-to-hand-to mouth contact. Some enteric viruses could persist in the air after toilet flushing and infection may be acquired after inhalation and swallowing.”
    9. Shanmugasundaram R, Jeyalakshmi T, Dutt MS, Murthy PB (2008) Larvicidal activity of neem and karanja oil cakes against mosquito vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (say), Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles stephensi (L.). J Environ Biol. 29(1):43-5.”Larvicidal effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) and karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil cakes””The combination of the two oil cakes recorded an LC95 of 0.93, 0.54 and 0.77% against the mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi respectively”
    10. Zhu J, Zeng X, Yanma, Liu T, Qian K, Han Y, Xue S, Tucker B, Schultz G, Coats J, Rowley W, Zhang A. (2006) Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 22(3):515-22.”Larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with LC50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (LC90 = 72 microg/ml) for Ae. aegypti, 78 microg/ml (LC90 = 130 microg/ml) for Ae.”
    11. Zhu J, Zeng X, O’Neal M, Schultz G, Tucker B, Coats J, Bartholomay L, Xue RD. (2008) Mosquito larvicidal activity of botanical-based mosquito repellents. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 24(1):161-8.”Sandalwood oil appeared to be the most effective of the larvicides, killing larvae of all 3 mosquito species in relatively short times. The values of LT50 and LT90 at the application dosage (0.2 mg/ml) were 1.06 +/- 0.11 and 3.24 +/- 0.14 h for Ae. aegypti”
    12. Lucia A, Juan LW, Zerba EN, Harrand L, Marcó M, Masuh HM. (2011) Validation of models to estimate the fumigant and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. “These results confirmed the importance of the major components in the biological activity of Eucalyptus essential oils on A. aegypti.”
    13. Waliwitiya R, Kennedy CJ, Lowenberger CA. (2009) Larvicidal and oviposition-altering activity of monoterpenoids, trans-anithole and rosemary oil to the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). 65(3):241-8.”rosemary oil and citronellal showed high larvicidal activity against all larval stages of Ae. aegypti (LC(50) values 10.3-40.8 mg L(-1)).”

    35.American Chemical Society (2004, July 16). Cinnamon Oil Kills Mosquitoes. ScienceDaily. “Cinnamon oil shows promise as a great-smelling, environmentally friendly pesticide, with the ability to kill mosquito larvae”

    1. Pitasawat, B. ,Champakaew, D.,Choochote, W.,Jitpakdi, A.,Chaithong, U.,Kanjanapothi, D.,Rattanachanpichai, E.,Tippawangkosol, P.,Riyong, D.,Tuetun, B.,Chaiyasit, D. (2007) Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: An alternative larvicide for mosquito control. Volume 78, Issue 3, April 2007, Pages 205-210Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors””All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure.”
    2. Dr Rina Tilak, Maj Vivek Gupta, Maj Vani Suryam, Mrs JD Yadav, Brig KK Dutta Gupta (2005) A Laboratory Investigation into Oviposition Responses of Aedes aegypti to Some Common Household Substances and Water from Conspecific Larvae. MJAFI 2005; 61 : 227-229
    4. University of Wisconsin in Madison. Integrated Mosquito Management. Repellents for Application to Skin”Plant-derived repellents can provide good protection against mosquito bites. Those based on lemon eucalyptus provide the longest protection (6-8 hr).”
    5. Müller GC, Junnila A, Kravchenko VD, Revay EE, Butlers J, Schlein Y. (2008) Indoor protection against mosquito and sand fly bites: a comparison between citronella, linalool, and geraniol candles. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 24(1):150-3″The candles with geraniol were about twice as effective as those with linalool and were about 5 times as effective as citronella candles in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by mosquitoes.”
    6. Tanya L Russell, Dickson W Lwetoijera, Deodatus Maliti, Beatrice Chipwaza, Japhet Kihonda, J Derek Charlwood, Thomas A Smith, Christian Lengeler, Mathew A Mwanyangala, Rose Nathan, Bart GJ Knols, Willem Takken and Gerry F Killeen (2010) Impact of promoting longer-lasting insecticide treatment of bed nets upon malaria transmission in a rural Tanzanian setting with pre-existing high coverage of untreated nets. Malaria Journal 9:187 “personal protection from 40% of bites for an untreated net user”
    7. Jacklyn Wong, Steven T. Stoddard, Helvio Astete, Amy C. Morrison, Thomas W. Scott (2011) Oviposition Site Selection by the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti and Its Implications for Dengue Control “egg-laying females were most attracted to sites containing other immature Ae. aegypti, rather than to sites containing the most food.”
    11. Olson SH, Gangnon R, Silveira G, Patz JA. Deforestation and malaria in Mâncio Lima County, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2010 Jul “we show that a 4.3%, or 1 SD, change in deforestation from August 1997 through August 2000 is associated with a 48% increase of malaria incidence.”
    12. Afrane YA, Little TJ, Lawson BW, Githeko AK, Yan G. Deforestation and vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae Giles mosquitoes in malaria transmission, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2008 Oct “Vectorial capacity was estimated to be 77.7% higher in the deforested site than in the forested site.”
    13. Vittor, A.Y., Gilman, R.H., Tielsch, J., Glass, G., Shields, T.I.M., Lozano, W.S., Pinedo-Cancino, V. and Patz, J.A., 2006. The effect of deforestation on the human-biting rate of Anopheles darlingi, the primary vector of falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 74(1), pp.3-11. “Deforested sites had an A. darlingi biting rate that was more than 278 times higher than the rate determined for areas that were predominantly forested.”
    15. Medical Ecology >> Malaria “a simple change in the ecological niche, such as the importation of immortelle trees, created a favorable transmission environment where none existed before.”
    17. Santana AL, Roque RA, Eiras AE (2006) Characteristics of grass infusions as oviposition attractants to Aedes (Stegomyia) (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 43(2):214-20″Ovitraps baited with infusions of Panicum maximum (Jacq.) collected significantly more eggs than controls containing tap water.”
    18. Eloína Santos; Juliana Correia; Luciana Muniz; Marcos Meiado; Cleide Albuquerque (2010) Oviposition activity of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in response to different organic infusions. Neotrop. entomol. vol.39 no.2 Londrina Mar./Apr. 2010 “organic infusions to achieve a better ovitrap performance””Eleusine indica, with the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the field has also been used”
    19. Ponnusamy L, Xu N, Böröczky K, Wesson DM, Abu Ayyash L, Schal C, Apperson CS. (2010) Oviposition responses of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to experimental plant infusions in laboratory bioassays. J Chem Ecol. 36(7):709-19.”Attraction of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus to plant infusions was evaluated” “Infusions made from senescent bamboo (Arundinaria gigantea) and white oak (Quercus alba) leaves were significantly attractive to both mosquitoes.”
    20. Gerald G.Marten and Janet W. Reid (2007) CYCLOPOID COPEPODS, Reprinted from T.G. Floore (ed.), Biorational Control of Mosquitoes,American Mosquito Control Association Bulletin No.7 (June, 2007).”Larger copepods, including many species of Mesocyclops, typically kill 95–100% of the Aedes larvae in a container. The most effective species(e.g., Mesocyclops longisetus, Mesocyclops aspericornis, Mesocyclops woutersi, and Macrocyclops albidus) usually reduce larval survival by 99–100%.
    21. Bailey, D. L., R. G. Jones and P. R. Simmonds. (1983) Effects of indigenous Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus on Aedes aegypti breeding in tire dumps. Mosquito News”A study in Jacksonville, Florida showed that a dense natural population of the predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus, significantly reduced a natural population of Aedes aegypti in a tire dump, when compared with 2 other tire dumps with very low levels of Toxorhynchites.”
    22. Focks, D.A., Sackett, S.R. and Bailey, D.L., 1982. Field experiments on the control of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus by Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 19(3), pp.336-339. “Production of adult AEDES AEGYPTI and CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS mosquitoes was monitored for 76 days in automobile tires, plastic buckets, and paint cans, to which 1 or 2 firstinstar larvae of TOXORHYNCHITES RUTILUS RUTILUS were added ca. every 10 days.””the overall control obtained for both treatment levels was 74%”
    23. Guirado, M.M. and de Campos Bicudo, H.E.M., 2007. Effect of used coffee grounds on larval mortality of Aedes aegypti L.(Diptera: Culicidae): suspension concentration and age versus efficacy. BioAssay, 2. “although the elimination of the breeding sites remains being the best way to control A. aegypti population size, the present data reinforces the validity of considering UCG preparations as possible auxiliary in the alternative control of this mosquito. UCG might be recommended mainly to be used in gardens inside Bromeliaceae, in the dishes under vases (when the dishes cannot be discarded) and over the land in the vases. UCG has the advantage of being free of cost (it is normally through out after the drink preparation) and used by many people as fertilizer for plants.”
    24. Govindarajan, M. and Sivakumar, R., 2012. Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitology research, 110(5), pp.1607-1620.
    27. Carlos F. S. Andrade and Isaías Cabrini (2009) Electronic mosquito repellers induce increased biting rates in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Vector Ecology 35 (1): 75-78. 2010.
    28. V.K. Dua, A.C. Pandey & A.P. Dash (2010) Adulticidal activity of essential oil of Lantana camara leaves against mosquitoes. Indian J Med Res 131, March 2010, pp 434-439
    29. M. Sathish Kumar and S. Maneemegalai (2008) Evaluation of Larvicidal Effect of Lantana Camara Linn Against Mosquito Species Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Advances in Biological Research 2 (3-4): 39-43
    30. Lucia A, Licastro S, Zerba E, Gonzalez Audino P, Masuh H. (2009) Sensitivity of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) to the vapors of Eucalyptus essential oils. Bioresour Technol. 100(23):6083-7.”A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect.”
    31. Carroll JF, Cantrell CL, Klun JA, Kramer M. (2007) Repellency of two terpenoid compounds isolated from Callicarpa americana (Lamiaceae) against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ticks. Exp Appl Acarol. 41(3):215-24.
    32. Chen J, Cantrell CL, Duke SO, Allen ML. (2008) Repellency of callicarpenal and intermedeol against workers of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J Econ Entomol. 101(2):265-71
    33. SEAN POULTER “Scientist who claimed GM crops could solve Third World hunger admits he got it wrong” Daily Mail 18 December 2007
    34. Dua VK, Gupta NC, Pandey AC, Sharma VP. (1996) Repellency of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) flowers against Aedes mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. Sep;12(3 Pt 1):406-8.
    35. Frank C. Mng’ong’o, Joseph J. Sambali, Eustachkius Sabas, Justine Rubanga, Jaka Magoma, Alex J. Ntamatungiro, Elizabeth L. Turner, Daniel Nyogea, Jeroen H. J. Ensink, Sarah J. Moore (2011) Repellent Plants Provide Affordable Natural Screening to Prevent Mosquito House Entry in Tropical Rural Settings—Results from a Pilot Efficacy Study PLoS ONE 6(10): e25927. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025927
    36. Cheng SS, Huang CG, Chen YJ, Yu JJ, Chen WJ, Chang ST. (2009) Chemical compositions and larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils from two eucalyptus species. Bioresour Technol. 2009 Jan;100(1):452-6.
    37. Lucia A, Gonzalez Audino P, Seccacini E, Licastro S, Zerba E, Masuh H. (2007) Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. Sep;23(3):299-303.
    38. Lenhart A, Orelus N, Maskill R, Alexander N, Streit T, McCall PJ. (2008) Insecticide-treated bednets to control dengue vectors: preliminary evidence from a controlled trial in Haiti. Trop Med Int Health. 13(1):56-67.”Insecticide-treated bednets had an immediate effect on dengue vector populations after their introduction”
    39. Mario A. Navarro-Silva; Francisco A. Marques; Jonny E. Duque LI, (2009) Review of semiochemicals that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae. Rev. Bras. entomol. vol.53 no.1 São Paulo 2009 “Integrated systems for pest management, which include strategies of attraction towards predefined places for the capture of mosquitoes (“Push Pull strategy”) might be the best way of sustainable control of mosquitoes in the future. Under this perspective, compounds with repellent effect would act pushing away vectors from places close to their hosts and attractant compounds would guide them to specific traps for their capture. Such control strategies would require little insecticide or they could even become unnecessary”
    40. Salazar FV, Achee NL, Grieco JP, Prabaripai A, Eisen L, Shah P, Chareonviriyaphap T. (2012) Evaluation of a peridomestic mosquito trap for integration into an Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) push-pull control strategy. J Vector Ecol. 2012 Jun;37(1):8-19.